Face-plate helmet

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In the later twelfth century a range of ‘crusader’ helmets became popular. These were generally flat-top helmets with an integral face-plate designed to keep arrows away from the face, worn over an arming cap and coif. The Norman kingdom of Sicily evolved similar conical helmets with face-plates.

This kind of helmet evolved into the later great helm. It is an option for knights and well-equipped serjeants from the late twelfth century (c.1160) onwards. They may have flowing cloth decoration attached to the top of the helmet.