Chapel de fer

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Another late twelfth-century innovation, the ‘kettle hat’ or ‘chapel de fer’ was a domed helmet with a metal brim which proved popular among infantry and was widely available thanks to the Italian arms industry. A late medieval kettle hat looks remarkably similar to the 20th century British 'tin hat'.

It may be worn over an arming cap and maille coif and is particularly suitable for lower-status combatants such as squires, militia and serjeants from the late twelfth century.